Management's Discussion and Analysis

This Management's Discussion and Analysis ("MD&A") of financial position and results of operations of Franco-Nevada Corporation ("Franco-Nevada", the "Company", "we" or "our") has been prepared based upon information available to Franco-Nevada as at March 5, 2024 and should be read in conjunction with Franco-Nevada's audited consolidated financial statements and related notes as at and for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (the "financial statements"). The financial statements and this MD&A are presented in U.S. dollars and the financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB") ("IFRS Accounting Standards").

Readers are cautioned that the MD&A contains forward-looking statements and that actual events may vary from management's expectations. Readers are encouraged to read the "Cautionary Statement on Forward-Looking Information" at the end of this MD&A and to consult Franco-Nevada's financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 and the corresponding notes to the financial statements which are available on our website at, on SEDAR+ at and on Form 6-K furnished to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") on EDGAR at

Additional information related to Franco-Nevada, including our Annual Information Form and Form 40-F, are available on SEDAR+ at and on EDGAR at, respectively. These documents contain descriptions of certain of Franco-Nevada's producing and advanced royalty and stream assets, as well as a description of risk factors affecting the Company. For additional information, please see our website at

Table of Contents

3 Overview

3 Strategy

  1. Selected financial information
  2. Highlights
  1. Guidance
  2. Market overview
  3. Revenue by asset
  4. Review of quarterly financial performance

19 Review of annual financial performance

  1. Impairment losses
  2. General and administrative and share-based compensation expenses
  1. Other income and expenses
  2. Summary of quarterly information
  3. Balance sheet review
  4. Liquidity and capital resources

34 Critical accounting policies and estimates

  1. Outstanding share data
  2. Internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures
  3. Non-GAAPfinancial measures

39 Cautionary statement on forward-looking information

Abbreviations Used in this Report

The following abbreviations may be used throughout this MD&A:

Abbreviated Definitions

Periods under review


The three-month period ended December 31


The three-month period ended September 30


The three-month period ended June 30


The three-month period ended March 31


The six-month period ended December 31


The six-month period ended June 30

Places and currencies


United States

"$" or "USD"

United States dollars

"C$" or "CAD"

Canadian dollars

"R$" or "BRL"

Brazilian reais

"A$" or "AUD"

Australian dollars


Interest types


Gold equivalent ounces


Net smelter return royalty


Platinum group metals


Gross royalty


Natural gas liquids


Overriding royalty




Gross overriding royalty

"oz Au"

Ounce of gold


Freehold or lessor royalty

"oz Ag"

Ounce of silver


Net profits interest

"oz Pt"

Ounce of platinum


Net royalty interest

"oz Pd"

Ounce of palladium


Working interest

"62% Fe"

62% Fe iron ore fines, dry metric

tonnes CFR China


London Bullion Market Association




Thousand cubic feet


West Texas Intermediate

For definitions of the various types of agreements, please refer to our most recent Annual Information Form filed on SEDAR+ at or our Form 40-F filed on EDGAR at


Franco-Nevada is the leading gold-focused royalty and streaming company with the largest and most diversified portfolio of royalties and streams by commodity, geography, operator, revenue type and stage of project.

Our Portfolio (at March 5, 2024)

Precious Metals

Other Mining























Our shares are listed on the Toronto and New York stock exchanges under the symbol FNV. An investment in our shares is expected to provide investors with yield and exposure to commodity price and exploration optionality while limiting exposure to cost inflation and other operating risks.


We believe that combining lower risk gold investments with a strong balance sheet, progressively growing dividends and exposure to exploration optionality is the right mix to appeal to investors seeking to hedge market instability. Since our Initial Public Offering over 16 years ago, we have increased our dividend annually and our share price has outperformed the gold price and all relevant gold equity benchmarks. Creating successful long-term partnerships with operators is a core objective. The alignment and the natural flexibility of royalty and stream financing has made it an attractive source of capital for the cyclical resource sector. We also work to be a positive force in all our communities, promoting responsible mining, providing a safe and diverse workplace and contributing to build community support for the operations in which we invest.

Our revenue is generated from various forms of agreements, ranging from net smelter return royalties, streams, net profits interests, net royalty interests, working interests and other types of arrangements. We do not operate mines, develop projects or conduct exploration. Franco-Nevada has a free cash flow generating business with limited future capital commitments and management is focused on managing and growing its portfolio of royalties and streams. We recognize the cyclical nature of the industry and have a long-term investment outlook. We maintain a strong balance sheet to minimize financial risk and so that we can provide capital to the industry when it is otherwise scarce.

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis


The advantages of this business model are:

  • Exposure to commodity price optionality;
  • A perpetual discovery option over large areas of geologically prospective lands;
  • No additional capital requirements other than the initial investment;
  • Limited exposure to cost inflation;
  • A free cash-flow business with limited cash calls;
  • A high-margin business that can generate cash through the entire commodity cycle;
  • A scalable and diversified business in which a large number of assets can be managed with a small stable overhead; and
  • Management that focuses on forward-looking growth opportunities rather than operational or development issues.

Our short-term financial results are primarily tied to the price of commodities and the amount of production from our portfolio of assets. Our attributable production has typically been supplemented by acquisitions of new assets. Over the longer term, our results are impacted by the amount of exploration and development capital available to operators to expand or extend our producing assets or to progress our advanced and exploration assets into production.

The focus of our business is to create exposure to gold and precious metal resource optionality. This principally involves investments in gold mines and providing capital to copper and other base metal mines to obtain exposure to by-product gold, silver and platinum group metals production. We also invest in other metals and energy to expose our shareholders to additional resource optionality. In 2023, 78.0% of our revenue was earned from precious metals and 83.0% was earned from mining assets.

One of the strengths of Franco-Nevada's business model is that our margins are not generally impacted when producer costs increase. The majority of our interests are royalty and streams with payments/deliveries that are based on production levels with no adjustments for the operator's operating costs. In 2023, these interests accounted for 93.3% of our revenue. We also have a small number of WI, NPI and NRI royalties which are based on the profit of the underlying operations.


1 GEOs include Franco-Nevada's attributable share of production from our Mining and Energy assets, after applicable recovery and payability factors. GEOs are estimated on a gross basis for NSRs and, in the case of stream ounces, before the payment of the per ounce contractual price paid by the Company. For NPI royalties, GEOs are calculated taking into account the NPI economics. Silver, platinum, palladium, iron ore, oil, gas and other commodities are converted to GEOs by dividing associated revenue, which includes settlement adjustments, by the relevant gold price. The price used in the computation of GEOs earned from a particular asset varies depending on the royalty or stream agreement, which may make reference to the market price realized by the operator, or the average price for the month, quarter, or year in which the commodity was produced or sold. For illustrative purposes, please refer to the average commodity price tables on pages 14 and 19 of this MD&A for indicative prices which may be used in the calculation of GEOs for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis


Selected Financial Information

For the three months ended

For the year ended

(in millions, except Average Gold Price, GEOs sold,

December 31,

December 31,

Adjusted EBITDA Margin, per GEO amounts and per share amounts)






Statistical Measures

Average Gold Price



$ 1,729







GEOs sold(1)






Statement of Comprehensive Loss (Income)












Costs of sales






Depletion and depreciation






Impairment losses (reversals)






Operating (loss) income






Net (loss) income






Basic (loss) earnings per share











Diluted (loss) earnings per share











Dividends declared per share











Dividends declared (including DRIP)











Weighted average shares outstanding






Non-GAAP Measures

Cash Costs(2)











Cash Costs(2) per GEO sold











Adjusted EBITDA(2)











Adjusted EBITDA(2) per share











Adjusted EBITDA Margin(2)

83.9 %

81.9 %

83.2 %

84.1 %

84.0 %

Adjusted Net Income(2)











Adjusted Net Income(2) per share











Adjusted Net Income Margin(2)


57.0 %


51.5 %


56.0 %


53.0 %$

51.8 %

Statement of Cash Flows

Net cash provided by operating activities











Net cash used in investing activities











Net cash used in financing activities











As at

As at

As at

December 31,

December 31,

December 31,

(expressed in millions)




Statement of Financial Position

Cash and cash equivalents







Total assets




Deferred income tax liabilities




Total shareholders' equity




Available capital(3)




  1. Refer to Note 1 at the bottom of page 4 of this MD&A for the methodology for calculating GEOs and, for illustrative purposes, to the average commodity price tables on pages 14 and 19 of this MD&A for indicative prices which may be used in the calculations of GEOs for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
  2. Cash Costs, Cash Costs per GEO sold, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA per share, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Net Income per share and Adjusted Net Income Margin are non-GAAP financial measures with no standardized meaning under IFRS Accounting Standards and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosed by other issuers. Refer to the "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" section of this MD&A for more information on each non-GAAP financial measure.
  3. Available capital comprises our cash and cash equivalents and the amount available to borrow under our $1 billion revolving credit facility (the "Corporate Revolver").

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis



Financial Update -Q4 2023 vs Q4 2022

  • 152,351 GEOs sold, a decrease of 17.1%;
  • $303.3 million in revenue, a decrease of 5.3%;
  • $45.1 million, or $296 per GEO sold, in Cash Costs, compared to $45.8 million, or $249 per GEO sold;
  • $254.6 million, or $1.33 per share, of Adjusted EBITDA, a decrease of 3.0% and 2.9%, respectively;
  • 83.9% in Adjusted EBITDA Margin, an increase compared to 81.9%;
  • $982.5 million, or $5.11 per share, in net loss, reflecting an impairment loss of $1,169.2 million related to our Cobre Panama streams, compared to net income of $165.0 million, or $0.86 per share;
  • $172.9 million, or $0.90 per share, in Adjusted Net Income, an increase of 4.9% and 4.7%, respectively;
  • 57.0% in Adjusted Net Income Margin, an increase compared to 51.5%;
  • $283.5 million in net cash provided by operating activities, an increase of 1.5%;
  • $1,421.9 million in cash and cash equivalents as at December 31, 2023 (December 31, 2022 - $1,196.5 million);
  • $2.4 billion in available capital as at December 31, 2023 (December 31, 2022 - $2.2 billion), comprising cash and cash equivalents and the amount available to borrow under our Corporate Revolver.

Financial Update -2023 vs 2022

  • 627,045 GEOs sold, a decrease of 14.1%;
  • $1,219.0 million in revenue, a decrease of 7.3%;
  • $179.3 million, or $286 per GEO sold, in Cash Costs, compared to $176.9 million, or $242 per GEO sold;
  • $1,014.7 million, or $5.28 per share, in Adjusted EBITDA, a decrease of 8.3% and 8.7%, respectively;
  • 83.2% in Adjusted EBITDA Margin, a decrease compared to 84.1%;
  • $466.4 million, or $2.43 per share, in net loss, compared to net income of $700.6 million, or 3.66 per share;
  • $683.1 million, or $3.56 per share, in Adjusted Net Income, a decrease of 2.1% and 2.2%, respectively;
  • 56.0% in Adjusted Net Income Margin, an increase compared to 53.0%;
  • $991.2 million in net cash provided by operating activities, a decrease of 0.8%.

Corporate Developments

Cobre Panama Updates

As previously disclosed, Cobre Panama has been in preservation and safe management ("P&SM"), with production halted, since November 2023. On November 28, 2023, following protests and President Cortizo's call for a mining moratorium, the Supreme Court of Justice of Panama (the "Supreme Court") released its ruling declaring Law 406 unconstitutional.

In light of these events, we carried out an impairment assessment of the recoverable amount of our Cobre Panama streams at December 31, 2023. We took a prudent approach in our judgement of the facts and circumstances, and based on the halting of production and the political environment surrounding the ruling by the Supreme Court, we determined the recoverable amount under applicable accounting standards to be nil as at December 31, 2023. As a result, we recognized a full impairment loss of $1,169.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2023. This impairment has been taken without prejudice to, or without at present attributing any specific value to, the legal remedies that may be obtained through any arbitration proceedings or otherwise.

Presidential and national legislative elections are scheduled to take place in May 2024, with a new president, Government of Panama (the "GOP") cabinet and National Assembly expected to assume office in July 2024. In the event that there is a change in the facts and circumstances surrounding the halting of production at Cobre Panama, and there is a resumption of precious metal stream deliveries to Franco-Nevada, an assessment of the recoverable amount of the Cobre Panama streams will be performed at that time, which may lead to a reversal of part or all of the impairment loss that has been recognized.

We are pursuing legal avenues to protect our investment in Cobre Panama. We have notified the Ministry of Commerce and Industries of Panama ("MICI") of our intent to initiate arbitration pursuant to the Canada-Panama Free Trade Agreement. As announced to MICI, Franco-Nevada presently and preliminarily estimates its damages to be at least $5 billion, subject to further analysis and development. Refer to the "Contingencies" section on page 31 of this MD&A for further details.

While we continue to pursue these legal remedies, we strongly prefer and hope for a resolution with the State of Panama that results in the best outcome for the Panamanian people and all parties involved.

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis


Financing Package with Skeena Resources Ltd. on Eskay Creek Project - British Columbia, Canada

On December 18, 2023, we completed the following transactions with Skeena Resources Ltd. ("Skeena"):

(a) Eskay Creek Royalty

We acquired an incremental 1.0% NSR for a purchase price of $41.8 million (C$56.0 million). Including our initial 1% NSR and the incremental 0.5% NSR we acquired in December 2022 for a purchase price of $19.9 million (C$27.0 million), we now hold a 2.5% NSR covering Skeena's Eskay Creek properties. The amended royalty agreement also provides contingent consideration of $3.4 million (C$4.5 million) payable by Franco-Nevada upon the achievement of certain conditions relating to materials in the Albino Lake Storage Facility at Eskay Creek.

(b) Skeena Convertible Debenture

We advanced $18.7 million (C$25.0 million) and received a convertible debenture (the "Skeena Convertible Debenture"). The C$25.0 million Skeena Convertible Debenture matures on the earlier of December 19, 2028 or on the completion of a project financing for Eskay Creek approved by the Board of Skeena, carries an interest rate of 7% and is convertible into common shares of Skeena at a conversion price of C$7.70. Skeena may elect to defer interest payments until maturity.

Acquisition of Additional Natural Gas Royalty Interests in Haynesville - U.S.

On November 21, 2023, we agreed to acquire, through wholly-owned subsidiaries, a royalty portfolio in the Haynesville gas play in Louisiana and Texas, for $125.0 million. The royalties are complementary to our existing Haynesville acreage and provide additional exposure to a diverse set of operators and a basin that is expected to help supply a growing LNG export capacity from the U.S. Gulf Coast. The transaction closed on January 2, 2024, subsequent to year-end. Prior to year-end, we advanced $12.5 million as a deposit held in escrow in connection with this transaction.

Funding of Financing Package with G Mining Ventures Corp. on Tocantinzinho Project - Brazil

As previously announced, on July 18, 2022, we acquired, through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Franco-Nevada (Barbados) Corporation ("FNBC"), a gold stream with reference to production from the Tocantinzinho gold project, owned by G Mining Ventures Corp. ("G Mining Ventures") and located in Pará State, Brazil (the "Tocantinzinho Stream"), for a purchase price of $250.0 million. Additionally, through one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, we provided G Mining Ventures with a $75.0 million secured term loan (the "G Mining Ventures Term Loan"). We also subscribed for common shares of G Mining Ventures.

(a) Tocantinzinho Stream

The Tocantinzinho Stream deposit of $250.0 million, which was payable in instalments subject to various conditions, was fully funded in the year ended December 31, 2023. Stream deliveries to FNBC are based on gold production from the Tocantinzinho property, according to the following schedule: (i) 12.5% of gold produced until 300,000 ounces of gold have been delivered and, thereafter, (ii) 7.5% of gold produced for the remaining mine life. G Mining Ventures will receive 20% of the spot gold price for each ounce of gold delivered.

(b) G Mining Ventures Term Loan

The G Mining Ventures Term Loan is a $75 million, 6-year term loan with an availability period of 3.5-years, drawable quarterly at G Mining Ventures' option following full funding of the Tocantinzinho Stream. The loan will bear interest at a rate of 3-Month Term Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("3-Month SOFR") +5.75% per annum, reducing to 3-Month SOFR +4.75% after completion tests have been achieved at the project. Amortization will begin in December 2025 with equal quarterly repayments followed by a final 25% repayment upon maturity in June 2028. Fees payable to Franco-Nevada's subsidiary include a standby fee on undrawn amounts of 1.0% per annum and a 2.0% original issue discount payable on principal amounts drawn.

No amounts were advanced under the G Mining Ventures Term Loan during the year ended December 31, 2023. Subsequent to year-end, on January 29, 2024, we funded $41.2 million, net of a 2% original issue discount of $0.8 million.

Pursuant to the loan, on July 18, 2022, Franco-Nevada was granted warrants with a fair value of $0.75 million to purchase 11.5 million G Mining Ventures common shares with a 5-year term and an exercise price of C$1.90 per G Mining Ventures common share.

(c) G Mining Ventures Common Shares

On July 22, 2022, we also subscribed for 44,687,500 G Mining Ventures common shares at a share price of C$0.80 per G Mining Ventures common share for a total cost of $27.5 million (C$35.8 million).

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis


Acquisition of Additional Royalty on Magino Gold Mine - Ontario, Canada

On November 15, 2023, we acquired, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, an additional 1.0% NSR on Argonaut Gold Inc.'s ("Argonaut") Magino gold mine in Ontario, Canada, for a purchase price of $28.0 million. Inclusive of our initial 2.0% NSR acquired on October 27, 2022, we now hold an aggregate 3.0% NSR on Magino.

Acquisition of Royalty on Wawa Gold Project - Ontario, Canada

On August 29, 2023, we acquired a 1.5% NSR on Red Pine Exploration Inc.'s Wawa gold project, located in Ontario, Canada, for a purchase price of $5.0 million (C$6.8 million). The agreement provides Franco-Nevada the option to acquire an additional 0.5% NSR based on predetermined conditions.

Acquisition of Royalties on Pascua-Lama Project - Chile

On August 8, 2023, we agreed to acquire, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, a sliding-scale gold royalty and fixed-rate copper royalty from private individuals over property pertaining to the Chilean portion of Barrick Gold Corporation's Pascua-Lama project for an aggregate purchase price of $75.0 million.

Subsequent to year-end, on January 3, 2024, we acquired, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, an additional interest for a purchase price of $6.7 million.

Including the additional royalty interest acquired in January 2024, at gold prices exceeding $800/ounce, we now hold a 2.941% NSR (gold) and a 0.588% NSR (copper) on the property.

Acquisition of Royalty on Volcan Gold Project - Chile

On July 6, 2023, we agreed to acquire, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, a 1.5% NSR on the Volcan gold project located in the Maricunga Gold Belt in the Atacama region of Chile for a purchase price of $15.0 million. The project is owned by Tiernan Gold Corporation ("Tiernan"), a company privately held by Hochschild Mining plc. The NSR covers the entire land package comprising the Volcan project, as well as a surrounding area of interest extending 1.5 kilometers. The agreement provides Franco-Nevada the option to acquire an additional 1.0% NSR based on predetermined conditions. We already hold an existing 1.5% NSR on the peripheral Ojo de Agua area, which is owned by Tiernan and forms part of the Volcan project.

Acquisition of Additional Royalty Interest on Caserones - Chile

We acquired, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, an incremental effective NSR totaling 0.1120% on the Caserones copper- molybdenum mine, now owned by Lundin Mining Corporation, located in the Atacama region of Chile. The incremental effective 0.1120% NSR was acquired in two transactions: (i) a 0.0260% effective NSR on March 8, 2023, for a purchase price of $2.1 million, and (ii) a 0.0860% NSR on June 29, 2023, for a purchase price of $7.3 million. Inclusive of our interest of 0.4582% acquired in April 2022, we held a 0.5702% effective NSR on Caserones as at December 31, 2023.

Subsequent to year end, on January 19, 2024, EMX Royalty Corporation ("EMX") exercised an option to acquire a portion of our interest for a sale price of $4.7 million, such that our effective NSR on Caserones is now 0.517%.

Acquisition Agreement for New Royalties with EMX Royalty Corporation

On June 27, 2023, we executed a binding term sheet with EMX for a three-year arrangement for the joint acquisition of newly created precious metals and copper royalties sourced by EMX. Franco-Nevada will contribute 55% (up to $5.5 million) and EMX will contribute 45% (up to $4.5 million) towards the royalty acquisitions, with the resulting royalty interests equally split on a 50/50 basis.

Acquisition of Royalties on Exploration Properties - Nevada and Arizona, U.S.

On June 15, 2023, we acquired, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, a portfolio of eight royalties on exploration properties located in the states of Nevada and Arizona, including a 0.5% NSR on Integra Resources Corp.'s Wildcat and Mountain View gold projects, for a purchase price of $2.5 million.

Acquisition of Additional Royalty on Valentine Gold Project and Private Placement with Marathon Gold Corporation - Newfoundland, Canada

On June 8, 2023, we acquired an additional 1.5% NSR on Marathon Gold Corporation's ("Marathon") Valentine Gold project located in Newfoundland for a purchase price of $45.0 million. Inclusive of our initial 1.5% NSR (reduced from 2.0% following Marathon's buy-back of 0.5%, as described below), we now hold an aggregate 3.0% NSR on the project.

On July 5, 2023, we acquired 6,578,947 common shares of Marathon at a price of C$0.76 per common share for an aggregate of $3.8 million (C$5.0 million), comprising the back-end of a non-brokered charity flow-through offering.

Acquisition of Royalty on Kerr-Addison Property and Share Subscription with Gold Candle Ltd. - Ontario, Canada

On April 14, 2023, we acquired a 1% NSR on Gold Candle Ltd.'s ("Gold Candle") Kerr-Addison project located in Virginiatown, Ontario, which hosts the formerly producing Kerr-Addison gold mine, for a purchase price of $10.0 million.

On July 26, 2023, we acquired 5,454,546 common shares of Gold Candle, a private company, at a price of C$1.10 per common share for an aggregate purchase price of $4.6 million (C$6.0 million).

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis


Acquisition of Gold Royalties - Australia

On February 22, 2023, we acquired a portfolio of five primarily gold royalties from Trident Royalties Plc ("Trident"), which includes a 1.5% NSR on Ramelius Resources Limited's Rebecca gold project ("Rebecca") located in Western Australia, for total consideration of $15.6 million payable as follows: (i) $14.3 million paid on closing of the transaction, and (ii) $1.3 million in a contingent payment payable upon first gold production at Rebecca.

Receipt of Valentine Gold Royalty Buy-back - Newfoundland, Canada

On February 22, 2023, Marathon exercised its option to buy-back 0.5% of the initial 2.0% NSR on the Valentine Gold project by paying $7.0 million to Franco-Nevada. We acquired the initial 2.0% NSR on February 21, 2019 for $13.7 million (C$18.0 million).

Acquisition of Mineral Rights with Continental Resources, Inc. - U.S.

Through a wholly-owned subsidiary, we have a strategic relationship with Continental Resources, Inc. ("Continental") to acquire, through a jointly-owned entity (the "Royalty Acquisition Venture"), royalty rights within Continental's areas of operation. Franco- Nevada recorded contributions to the Royalty Acquisition Venture of $9.6 million for 2023 (2022 - $12.2 million). As at December 31, 2023, Franco-Nevada's cumulative investment in the Royalty Acquisition Venture totaled $450.2 million and Franco-Nevada has remaining commitments of up to $69.8 million.


In Q4 2023, we declared a quarterly dividend of $0.34 per share, an increase compared to the dividend of $0.32 per share in Q4 2022. During the quarter, we paid total dividends of $65.9 million, of which $59.8 was paid in cash and $6.1 million was paid in common shares under our Dividend Reinvestment Plan (the "DRIP"). In 2023, we paid total dividends of $262.1 million, of which $233.0 million was paid in cash and $29.1 million was paid in common shares under our DRIP.

Canada Revenue Agency ("CRA") Audit

As previously announced, on April 28, 2023, we reached a settlement with the CRA in respect of the Domestic and FAPI Reassessments, which provides for these reassessments to be vacated entirely on a without-cost basis. Under the settlement, the CRA accepts the manner in which we deduct upfront payments made in connection with precious metal stream agreements for Canadian tax purposes. The potential tax exposure related to the vacated reassessments was $20.9 million (C$27.6 million) plus interest and penalties. We had posted security in cash for 50% of the reassessed amounts under the Domestic and FAPI Reassessments totaling $13.9 million (C$17.7 million). During the quarter, the CRA returned the full amount of the deposits to the Company.

With respect to the transfer pricing reassessments in relation to our Mexican and Barbadian subsidiaries, we believe that these reassessments are not supported by Canadian tax law and jurisprudence and continue to defend our tax filing positions. Refer to the "Contingencies" section on page 31 of this MD&A for further details on the CRA Audit.

Barbados Proposed Corporate Tax Reform

On November 7, 2023, the Government of Barbados announced proposed tax measures in response to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's ("OECD") Pillar Two global minimum tax initiative, including an increase of the Barbados corporate tax rate to 9% effective January 1, 2024. This increase does not affect the amounts of current or deferred income taxes recognized for the year ended December 31, 2023 as the legislation was not substantively enacted at December 31, 2023. However, this change will increase our income tax charge in future periods. If the new tax rate were applied to the taxable temporary differences recognized at December 31, 2023, it is estimated that our deferred tax liability would increase by approximately $50 million.

The Government has also proposed to introduce a Qualified Domestic Minimum Top-Up Tax for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2024, which will top-up the Barbados effective tax rate payable by an entity subject to Pillar Two, to 15%.

Global Minimum Tax

On August 4, 2023, the Government of Canada released the draft Global Minimum Tax Act ("GMTA") for consultation, which would implement key measures of the OECD's Pillar Two global minimum tax in Canada. The GMTA includes the introduction of a 15% global minimum tax that applies to large multinational enterprise groups with global consolidated revenues over €750 million.

If the GMTA legislation becomes enacted or substantively enacted, we will first become subject to the rules for our 2024 year. Since the legislation was not effective at the reporting date, we have no related current tax exposure for the year ended December 31, 2023. Further, the group has applied the exception to recognizing and disclosing information about deferred taxes arising from Pillar Two, as provided in the amendments to IAS 12. See Note 2 in the financial statements.

Under the Pillar Two legislation, we would be liable to pay a top-up tax when the effective tax rate in a jurisdiction is below the 15% minimum rate. All entities within the Franco-Nevada group, other than its one subsidiary that operates in Barbados have an effective tax rate that exceeds 15%.

We are in the process of assessing our exposure to Pillar Two taxes and will recognize and disclose known or reasonably estimable information related to such exposure when legislation becomes enacted or substantively enacted in Canada and Barbados.

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis


Portfolio Updates

Additional updates related to our portfolio of assets are available in our News Release issued on March 5, 2024 available on SEDAR+ at and EDGAR at

Cobre Panama Updates

(a) Revised Concession Contract and Law 406

First Quantum Minerals Ltd. ("First Quantum"), its subsidiary, Minera Panama, S.A. ("MPSA"), and the GOP had been engaged in discussions regarding a revised concession contract for Cobre Panama. On March 8, 2023, First Quantum and the GOP announced that an agreement had been reached on the terms and conditions for a revised concession contract (together with subsequent modifications, the "Revised Concession Contract"). The Revised Concession Contract provides for an initial 20-year term with a 20-year extension option and additional extensions for life of mine. On October 20, 2023, the National Assembly of Panama approved the Revised Concession Contract through Law 406 with retroactive effect to December 22, 2021.

(b) Constitutional Proceedings and Mining Moratorium

On and after October 23, 2023, amid protests against the GOP and the Revised Concession Contract, a number of claims were lodged with the Supreme Court asserting that Law 406 (which gave legal effect to the Revised Concession Contract) was unconstitutional. MPSA was not a party to that proceeding.

On October 29, 2023, President Cortizo announced that the GOP would hold a referendum on whether to terminate the Revised Concession Contract approved by Law 406 and impose a national moratorium on mining.

The National Assembly of Panama withdrew the proposal to hold a referendum on Law 406. However, on November 3, 2023, the National Assembly approved, and President Cortizo signed, Law 407, which declared a mining moratorium for an indefinite duration within Panama, including preventing any new mining concession from being granted or any existing mining concessions from being renewed or extended.

On November 27, 2023, the Supreme Court issued a ruling (released publicly the following day) declaring Law 406 unconstitutional and stating that the effect of the ruling was that the Revised Concession Contract purportedly no longer exists. The ruling was subsequently published in the Official Gazette on December 2, 2023. The Supreme Court did not order the closure of the Cobre Panama mine.

(c) Preservation and Safe Management

During the protests, Cobre Panama experienced illegal blockades at the Punta Rincón port and at the roads to the site that prevented the delivery of supplies that were necessary to operate the power plant. The illegal blockades at the roads to the mine site have dissipated, allowing for the delivery by road and at port of necessary supplies to conduct the P&SM program.

On December 19, 2023, the MICI announced plans for Cobre Panama which was followed by a request from MPSA for a P&SM plan for Cobre Panama. In January 2024, First Quantum and MICI had discussions related to a formalized P&SM program and the associated costs for Cobre Panama. At the request of MICI, MPSA delivered a preliminary draft for the first phase of P&SM on January 16, 2024.

Approval of Candelaria 2040 Environmental Impact Assessment

Lundin Mining Corporation announced that Antamina's Environmental Impact Assessment ("EIA") for the extension of operations and mine life for the Candelaria mine was approved by the Regional Environmental Commission of Atacama on September 8, 2023. Approval of the EIA will allow for the extension of Candelaria's mine life to 2040 and include various measures that will support sustainable social, economic, and environmental development in the Atacama Region.

Approval of Antamina Modified Environmental Impact Assessment

Teck Resources Limited announced that Antamina's Modification of Environmental Impact Assessment ("MEIA") was approved on February 14, 2024. The MEIA allows the extension of the Antamina mine life from 2028 to 2036.

2023 Management's Discussion and Analysis



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Franco-Nevada Corporation published this content on 05 March 2024 and is solely responsible for the information contained therein. Distributed by Public, unedited and unaltered, on 05 March 2024 23:10:06 UTC.